Monday, December 13, 2010

Dayaw 2010: Indigenous Peoples in a Changing Environment

“Climate change equals culture change,” declares anthropologist Enrique G. Oracion, president of the Ugnayang Pang-AghamTao (UGAT) or the Anthropological Association of the Philippines.

Among other things, we are shaped and affected by the environment we live in, including the natural environment. This is also true for indigenous peoples (IP), and the impacts of the environment and its changes in their lives and culture are more profound. UGAT tackled these issues as well as perennial concerns like IP rights, mainstreaming and marginalization, preservation of culture, poverty, etc., in the celebration of the Indigenous Peoples’ Month by the country’s national organization of anthropologists and the National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA).

Every October, the NCCA spearheads Indigenous Peoples’ Month, one of the national arts and culture agency’s major celebrations. Of recent, the celebration is in the form of grand festivals focusing on each Philippines’ major island cluster. In 2007, Kalimudan: Panaghi-usa sa Mindanao (Mindanao Indigenous Peoples’ Gathering) held in Davao City in November, featured Mindanao’s ethnic groups. The following year, Timpuyog: Indigenous People Month Celebration in Luzon was held in Santiago City, Isabela, focusing on Luzon ethnic groups and featuring performances, arts and crafts workshops, cultural awareness lectures, forums, tours, and a theme-park exhibition featuring the traditional houses, cultural resources, practices/rituals, chants, music, songs and dances, stories, traditional arts and crafts, indigenous games. Last year, the Indigenous Peoples’ Festival was held in the Visayas, particularly in Roxas City, Capiz, called Dungog, with similar activities and aims.

Via activities such as performances, exhibitions, forums, lecture-demonstrations and workshops, the festival aims to “provide venue for indigenous peoples (IP) to celebrate the richness of their cultures; allow cultural exchanges that will foster deeper cultural understanding to sustain a culture of peace; provide opportunity to discuss IP rights; give students and other people a chance to deepen their awareness and appreciation of indigenous cultures; recognize the expertise and contributions of indigenous communities; and advocate for the preservation as well as integration of traditional culture into the national cultural mainstream.”

This year, the celebration was held in the National Capital Region, named Dayaw: Indigenous Peoples Festival 2010, with three major components: dance and performance or Palabas, exhibit or Sulyap, and conference or Suri. The celebration opened on the first day of October with a showcase of indigenous performances and a press conference headlined by NCCA (led by its chairman Dr. Vilma Labrador) and UGAT officials, and Maria Venus Raj, the controversial beauty queen who became fourth runner-up in the Miss Universe pageant and Dayaw’s endorser.

“This year’s Buwan ng Katutubong Filipino draws inspiration from the word dayaw, which means, in old Tigaonon of Surigao del Sur, ‘to show off, parade or display’ and ‘to present with pride what is distinctly and essentially inherent in oneself”; in old Catandunganon, ‘to show one’s best with pride and dignity coupled with excitement’; and in Ilokano, ‘honor.’ It also draws inspiration from the word kadayawan, which means, for Dabawenos, ‘a celebration of life, a thanksgiving for the gifts of nature, the wealth of culture, and the bounties of harvest and the serenity of living,” stated Dr. Eufracio C. Abaya, this year’s festival director. “Accordingly, Dayaw: Buwan ng Katutubong Filipino not only celebrates the wisdom of social and environment peace and harmony enshrined in IP cultural practices, but also the continuing reflexive and pragmatic engagement among IPs, the government and the public at large to uphold the IP’s strategic importance and rights.”

Assisting Abaya in the steering committee were deputy festival directors Domingo Bakilan, head of the NCCA’s Subcommission on Cultural Communities and Traditional Arts, for the Luzon group; Alphonsus Tesoro, head of the Committee on Central Cultural Communities, for the Visayas group; and Cheryl Cellona, head of the Committee on Southern Cultural Communities, for the Mindanao group.

Aside from the showcasing of indigenous cultures, Dayaw highlighted the serious aspect of environmental concerns. Each festival component carried a title with the word kalikhasan. Abaya coined the term, a combination of the Filipino words likha, meaning “creation,” and kalikasan, meaning “nature” or “natural environment,” to underscore the “inseparability of creative practice in the natural environment as well as the natural environment in creative practice.”

The celebration put into spotlight the importance of the environment in the shaping and viability of indigenous cultures as well as the effect of climate change, specifically in the conference titled “Kalikhasan in Flux: Cultural Creativity in a Changing Environment,” which was also the 32nd UGAT Annual Conference.

Held at the Tambunting Hall of the Museum of the Filipino People, National Museum, from October 20 to 23, 2010, the conference aimed to gathered IP representatives, artists, cultural workers, academics and representatives from government and non-government organizations.

“This year’s theme is particularly timely because indigenous peoples, due to their marginalized position and unique relationship with the environment, are seen as one of the most vulnerable segments of the population to the impacts of environmental crisis. And yet, they are also some of the most active participants in environmental movements, who, together with support groups, challenge dominant ideologies and practices towards the environment,” said Rosa Cordillera A. Castillo, the conference chair.

“But I do not want to sound as an environmental determinist because the ways people live likewise impact or alter the environment; it could also be culture change equals climate change, and the degree of change varies across time and space,” explained Oracion. “In general, the changes in the conditions of the natural environment have corresponding cost to the lives and culture of indigenous peoples particularly the Philippines. And this is not only seriously affecting their food supply and nutritional requirements but also other facets of their lives such as traditional knowledge, rituals, medicines and health practices, music, art and other aesthetic production which have made them culturally distinct.”

On the other hand, Abaya said: “Main issues touched on the theme of the conference, which is the interaction between nature and cultural creativity. So given that current situation in which climate change and extractive industries and the way land is used, patterned or defined, these have really affected the way of life of the indigenous peoples. And when I speak of their way of life, we’re talking about things that they do in their everyday life. For instance, their agricultural practices have been affected. Practices such as these along with rituals, the way they usually organize their lives have been affected by changes in nature. Concretely, we talk about displacement as a result of the mining industry, ancestral domains, land conversion.

He further said that they heard these kinds of comments and stories “from the horse’s mouth, so to speak.”

The conference gathered academics, anthropologists and cultural workers such as Owen Lynch, Vellorimo Suminguit, Philip Largo Anghag, Mynabel Pomarin, Victoria Diaz, Reuben Andrew Muni, Maileenita Penalba, Emerson Sanchez, Michael Armand Canilao, Nicole Revel, Edwin Gariguez, Timuay Alim Bandara, Alicia Magos, Robert Panaguiton, Erlinda Burton, May Shiu-Buslig, Randy Nobleza, Earl Francis Pasilan, Norli Colili, Bernadeth Wampa, Bernadeth Ofong, Gideon Binobo, Maria Victoria Espaldon, Van Leigh Alibo, Rico Ancog, Arnold Salvacion, Ramon Docto, Lyer Galulo, Nicomedes Briones, Paolo Vicerra, Jem Javier, Kathleen Tantuico, Ros Costelo, Ramon Felipe Sarmiento, Ponciano Bennagen, Maria Mangahas, Arlene Sampang, Cynthia Zayas, Lilian dela Pena, Zona Hildegrade Saniel Amper, Maria Teresa Dominguez, Artiso Mandawa, Matyline Camfili, Julius Dagitan, Benjamin Nebres III, Bonindo Revidad, Jr., Harrish Serrano, Cyndi Mae Paje, Christian John Morales, Paul Vincent Silo, AT Roxas, NL Bracamonte, SL Ponce and LN Marapao.

They presented their studies which dealt with the impact of changing land use patterns on indigenous cultures; the relevance and efficacy of national, regional and global instruments addressing environmental crisis, specifically those affecting IPs; the relation between ritual life and environmental crisis; the relation between art practices and weaving and environmental crisis; the relation and challenges among indigenous peoples, biodiversity conservation and climate change; environmentally-linked knowledge and practices; the relation between changing marine environments and fishing traditions and creativity; and extractive practices affecting IPs’ ancestral domain and their ramifications on cultural creativity.

A session paneled by the NCCA dealt with topics such as microfinance scheme for IPs, IP rights including intellectual property rights and the Dungog Declaration, a document drafted and signed by IP leaders who participated in the Dungog celebration, detailing the issues and concerns of the IPs and recommendations and solutions.

The microfinance scheme was presented by Center for Agriculture and Rural Development Mutually Reinforcing Institutions (CARD MRI), which offers financial and non-financial services such as loans with very low interest and no collateral especially to indigenous peoples, so they would not be victims of loan sharks.

Noted anthropologist Dr. Jesus Peralta talked on indigenous peoples’ rights, particularly intellectual property rights. He is currently helping draft a bill to protect the traditional intellectual property rights of indigenous peoples. He pointed out that the present copyright law, which mostly deals with individual works, is insufficient or no apt in protecting indigenous intellectual properties. He said that the law states that any work, after fifty years of creation, becomes public domain. He said that traditional expressions such as crafts, performances and others are “older than fifty years and are therefore considered public domain and subject to exploitation by anyone.”

Dr. Peralta mentions two ways in protecting these: by amending the copyright law and by signing of a new bill that particularly protects indigenous intellectual properties. He believes that that it is possible to legislate traditional cultural properties of all the ethno-linguistic groups that “shall not lapse into public domain after 50 years and shall continue indefinitely to be exclusive property of these ethno-linguistic groups that communally own them.”

“Traditional tangible and intangible properties are to be held in perpetuity in ethnic memory and considered valid as ethnic intellectual property,” he states.

To be able to “copyright” a traditional expression, it must be distinctive to a group, which can claim solely as its own.

“There are cultural properties that are distinctive, characteristic of and or derived from the particular ethnic traditional culture, to the exclusion of other ethnic cultures. For instance the hagabi of the Ifugao is theirs only exclusively and not found in culture of other groups. All other cultures have properties that are exclusively their own,” Peralta said.

This as well as others may “be established in a communal ownership of sort, and to be registered under the group’s name for protection within the copyright law.”

All we have to do is to pinpoint these distinctive items.

Aside from intellectual ownership, there are several issues confronting the indigenous peoples. One deals with perception and classification. To explain, Abaya looked at history.

“When the colonist arrived in the country, nakita natin kung paano nila klinasfy ang mga lipunan sa ating bansa. Merong Christian and non-Christian. Nagkaroon ng minority/majority. Mayroon ding cultural minorities… hill tribes. And meron ding commission sa ating gobiyerno na patuloy ang ganitong classification. Ang implication nito ay ang paningin ng so-called majority sa minority. Mas superior sila, mga ganyan. At silang mga minority ay kawawa,” he said. “In fact, ang nangyari pa sa mga labels na ito na-stigmatize nga ang pagiging katutubo. Na-associate sila sa mga primitive. And yet, ang irony din ay nakikitaan natin sila ng source ng mga materials para ma-define natin ang national identity. So, ang nangyayari, humuhugot-hugot sila ng mga symbols, mga sining ng katutubong Filipino, at sinasabi nila ito ang ating sining. Parang may irony doon.” (“When the colonist arrived in the country, we saw how they classified societies in our country. There is the Christian and then the non-Christian, minority and majority. We also have cultural minorities… hill tribes. And we have a commission in the government that continues this kind of classification. The implication of this is the perception of so-called majority of the minority. They’re superior, like that. And the minority is pitiful. In fact, these labels stigmatize being indigenous. They are associated with being primitive. And yet, the irony is that we see them as a source of materials for us to define our national identity. So, what happens is that they draw out symbols, the arts of the indigenous Filipinos, and say that these are our arts. There is irony in that.”

He further related: “On the one hand, nakikita natin, ah, napaka-colorful ng buhay nila, napaka-creative nila. Pero at the same time, kapag titingnan mo ‘yung regard ng karamihan, parang mas mababa silang kategorya. Kahapon, may nagsabi, tinanong ng isang researcher ang isang kabataan sa Cordillera, Igorot ka ba? Ay ako, hindi na. ‘Yung parents ko lang ang Igorot. I think may pagbabago na sa kanilang pananaw kung ano ang identity nila. Siguro tingnan din natin ang papel ng media rito. Nire-reproduce lamang din kadalasan ng media ang mga pananaw ng dominant sector ng ating lipunan. Kung minsan, kinakikitaan natin sila ng source ng spectacle… So makikita natin, mga festivals, for example, doon lang natin hina-highlight. Maganda naman talaga ang kanilang sayaw, tapos, nagke-cater kunwari sa turismo. So marami tayong dapat pagnilaynilayan kaugnay siyempre ng kanilang lugar sa pangkalahatang lipunan natin sa Pilipinas.” (On the one hand, we see, ah, their lives are colorful; they’re very creative. But at the same time, if you see how they regard them, it’s like they’re in a lower category. Yesterday, a researcher asked a young man from the Cordillera are you Igorot. He answered not anymore. Only my parents are Igorot. I think there has been a change in how they perceive their identity. Maybe let’s look at the role of media. It often reproduces the perception of the dominant sector of our society. Sometimes, we see them as a source of spectacle. So we see them in festivals, where they are highlighted. Well, their dances are really beautiful. They cater to tourism. So, there are many things that we have to ponder on especially about their place in the overall society of the Philippines.”)

Abaya also touched on the issue of nationality: “Until such time na hindi natin ma-solve ‘yung idea ng nationality versus ethnicity kung saan ang isang Maranao ay magsasabi na ako’y isang Maranao at isang Filipino, ako’y isang Ilocano at ako’y isang Filipino, Mandaya, ganyan, kailangan pa rin nating tingnan ng mas malalim ang interaksyon ng etnisidad at ng pagiging citizen of the Philippines. Itong kategoryang IP ay mahalaga lalo na kapag nag-iisip tayo ng mga programa. Without a category such as this, how programs are developed and implemented, mahihirapan kung wala talagang kategorya ang isang grupo. Hindi naihihiwalay ito sa mga kategorya tulad ng mga magsasaka, mga manggagawa, mga kababaihan. Importante iyon sa pag-identify talaga ng mga grupo sa Pilipinas. It just so happened na we know that historically, ang mga indigenous peoples ay special sector na talagang marginalized culturally, socially, politically, economically. So multiple ang kanilang marginalization. Kung nagre-react man sila na na huwag ninyo kaming tawaging indigenous peoples ay nakikita ko sa isang anggulo, mas mabuti siguro na tayong mga Filipino. Siguro kung isang makakasolusyon sa problema. Pero depende talaga sa konstekto ng usapan. Ganoon naman talaga ang lengguwahe ay nasa konteksto ng paggamit. Maraming nuances ang paggamit ng lengguwahe. Ang nakikita kong posibleng solusyon doon ay mag-isip tayo na tayo ay Pilipino pero kailangan nating i-recognize na tayo ay nanggagaling sa iba’t-ibang pangkat etniko.” (“Until such time we don’t address the issue of nationality versus ethnicity, in which a Maranao can say I am Maranao and a Filipino, I’m Ilocano and a Filipino, like that, we still need to look more deeply into interplay of ethnicity and being citizen of the Philippines. This IP category is important if we’re developing programs. Without a category such as this, how programs are developed and implemented, it is difficult if a group has no category. This is not different from other categories such as farmers, fisher folks, women. It is important in identifying groups in the Philippines. It just so happened that we know that historically, indigenous peoples is a special sector that is really marginalized, culturally, socially, politically, economically. So, their marginalization is multiple. If they are reacting, don’t call us indigenous peoples, it may be better if we just call ourselves Filipino. That may be one solution. But it also depends on the context. Language is really about contexts. There are nuances. One solution I see is that we think that we are all Filipino but we also recognize that we come from different ethnic groups.”)

Showcasing Ethnicity

Dance is important and even integral to the cultures of indigenous peoples, serving many purposes such as entertainment and ritual. Selected ethnic groups and performers were invited to showcase their dances and music for the performance aspect of Dayaw, titled “Indayog ng Kalikhasan,” under the artistic direction of Shirley Halili-Cruz, head of the NCCA’s Committee on Dance.

Indayog ng Kalikhasan” was held simultaneous with the conference, opening at the Rizal Park Open-Air Auditorium on October 20 preceded by a short parade and going to several venues such as government branches (House of Representatives), television stations (NBN 4 and ABS-CBN 2), malls (SM City San Lazaro and Star Malls Las Pinas, Alabang and EDSA Mandaluyong), nearby cities (Malolos, Bulacan) and schools (Miriam College; St. Scholastica’s College in Pampanga; Pedro Poveda College; Manila Business College in Sta. Cruz, Manila; and Rizal Technological University in Mandaluyong.)

Featured groups were the T’boli of Lake Sebu, South Cotobato; Mangguagan of Davao del Norte; Teduray of Maguindanao; Kamayo of Agusan del Sur; Bagobo of Davao City; Manobo of Bukidnon; Subanen of Zamboanga del Sur; B’laan of Balut Island, Saranggani; Sangir of Balut Island; Tausug of Jolo; Kaagan of Davao Oriental; Mamanwa of Surigao del Norte; Hiligaynon of Capiz; Palaw’an of Palawan; Jama Mapun of Palawan; Bukidnon of Negros Occidental, Iloilo and Capiz; Ati of Iloilo, Guimaras and Capiz; Waray of Samar and Leyte; Mangyan of Midoro; Dumagat of Quezon; Ifugao of Kiangan, Ifugao; Kalinga; Bugkalot of Nueva Vizcaya; Gaddang; Ayta Magbukon of Bataan; Ibaloi of Benguet; and Malaueg.

They presented traditional dances and rituals and music such as the shelayan by the Subanen, pattong by the Kalinga, binanog by the Panay Bukidnon, dagungguan by the Jama Mapun, damsu by the T’boli, pangalay by the Tausug, kasamungan by the Kaagan, and ini-ini by the Ati of Iloilo.

Indayog” closed on October 23 also at the Rizal Park Open-Air Auditorium, with a series of performances capped by a “unity dance,” comprising selected steps from different ethnic dances, by all the participants.

Visual Glimpse

Under the artistic direction of Edgar Talusan Fernandez, head of the NCCA’s Committee on Visual Arts, “Sa Tinubuang Kalikhasan” presented ethnographic photographs and artifacts at the NCCA Gallery for the whole month of October. It also featured reproduction of works by Federico “Boy” Dominguez, a Mindanaoan artist with Manobo and Mandaya roots, on indigenous peoples. Additionally, interactive exhibit on traditional arts and crafts, such as mat weaving, handloom weaving, pottery and the making of accessories was put up at the National Museum during the conference.

Related activities

Aside from the three major components, smaller events were held. The Australian Embassy showed a series of Australian indigenous films at the NCCA.

Several NCCA-supported events and projects celebrating indigenous cultures were included in the overall celebration of the Indigenous Peoples’ Month. From September 29 to October 1, 2010, the Tagakpan Women’s Tribal Organization held the Tipo Tipo Festival, a three-day celebration of the Bagobo Clata highlighting their cultural traditions in rituals, traditional songs, dances and indigenous games, in Tagakpan, Davao City. The Ibaloi community of Taloy Sur, Tuba, Benguet, held the Tuba Pansakatan Tan Kagam-es Festival, from October 5 to 6, 2010. The Kaliga Ta Talakag Festival highlighted the culture of the Higaonon community of Talakag, Bukidnon, from October 20 to 23, 2010. In Loo, Buguias, Benguet, the IP organization Buguias Ancestral Domain Alternative for the Natives’ Governance (BADANG) commemorated its founding with a four-day gathering of the Kankana-ey cultural community called Alibay di Badang, from October 27 to 30, 2010. Alibay is an indigenous rite of thanksgiving and supplication for good health, bountiful harvest and continuous peace and harmony.

Tuesday, September 14, 2010

In Grand Symphony: CCP holds first National Orchestra Festival

Seeing and listening to an orchestra performance, a rare treat, can be overwhelming. Seeing and listening to seven for several nights can be a stupefying thought. But the country’s premiere cultural institution, the Cultural Center of the Philippines (CCP), is making it happen, the rarest of treats. Magnitude 7 on the Orchestra Scale: The First National Orchestra Festival gathers together seven of the country’s finest orchestras for five days of concerts and performances from Sept. 21 to 25.
Participating are FILharmoniKA with conductor Gerard Salonga, the Manila Symphony Orchestra (MSO) with conductor Arturo Molina, the University of the Philippines (UP) Orchestra with conductor Edna “Michi” Marcil Martinez, the Angono Chamber Orchestra with conductor Agripino Diestro, the University of Santo Tomas (UST) Symphony Orchestra with conductor Herminigildo Ranera, the PREDIS Chamber Orchestra with conductor Jeffrey Solares and the Philippine Philharmonic Orchestra (PPO) with music director Olivier Ochanine.
Raul Sunico, vice president and artistic director of the CPP and himself an accomplished musician, came up with the idea of the festival, thinking there is a need to democratize the arts, specifically orchestra music. Although the PPO is the official orchestra of the country, he said that “there are several orchestras in the Philippines that need our support and promotion.”
This will be the first that time that the country’s orchestras will come together in a grand event. The difficulty of transporting large contingents with instruments, scheduling, funding and logistics prevented this from happening sooner. Fortunately, most of the orchestras are based around and near Metro Manila. The Peace Philharmonic Orchestra from Cebu has been invited but was not able to participate because of transportation difficulty and insufficiency of funds.
As with the case with other fields of the arts, endeavors like this are not highly profitable and funding is a problem. Sunico admitted that the musicians are not compensated as they should have been. Martinez of the UP Orchestra, the only woman conductor in the country, said that performing inside the CCP, which is held in esteem, is enough compensation for many members.
Additionally, the younger musicians get to interact with and learn from senior, professional and established players, especially during their participation in the Festival Orchestra, which is something to look forward to.
“The highlight of the event is the performance of the Festival Orchestra composed of selected members of the participating orchestras which shall be performing with the country’s eminent conductors,” Melissa Mantaring, head of the CCP Music Division, said.
The Festival Orchestra will open the festival on the Sept. 21, playing Symphony No. 5, Op. 64 in E Minor by Pyotr Ilyich Tchaikovsky, and will perform during the grand finale on Sept. 25 in which the conductors will take turns in leading the orchestra. In between, the other orchestras will have their own performances. According to Mantaring, overall the event will showcase an exciting and varied program of immensely enjoyable and appealing pieces written for the orchestra.
Also opening the festival is the PPO, the country’s leading and professional orchestra. It was formally inaugurated on May 15, 1973, as the CCP Philharmonic Orchestra, initially intended to assist artists performing at the CCP Theater. It was reorganized in 1979 with a vision to be among the best in the world. The PPO has performed with many world renowned conductors, toured and performed in many countries, participated in many festivals, and premiered Filipino compositions and works by foreign composers not yet performed in the Philippines. For the festival, the PPO will perform Colas Breugnon Overture by Dmitri Kabalevsky; Pastorale d’été, H. 31 by Arthur Honneger; and Symphony No. 40 in G Minor by Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart.
The following day, Sept. 22, the PREDIS Chamber Orchestra and the Manila Symphony Orchestra will take the stage.
The PREDIS Orchestra is composed of young musicians under the direct supervision and guidance of members of the MSO and are based at the Saint Scholastica’s College School of Music. Founded in 1985 by Basilio Manalo, and Sister Mary Placid Abejo, OSB, the Philippine Research for Developing Instrumental Soloists (PREDIS) was envisioned to develop young musicians for a professional music career. In 1995, advanced PREDIS members became the core group of the Manila Youth Symphony Orchestra, which later became the founding members of the reorganized Manila Symphony Orchestra (MSOII). PREDIS still continues to provide scholarships to talented youth.
On the other hand, the MSO, currently composed of 60 musicians, is considered one of Asia’s oldest symphony orchestras. It was founded by Dr. Alexander Lippay in 1926. In 1931, the Manila Symphony Society was formed to support the MSO’s regular season concerts. During the 1940s until the 1960s the orchestra was under Dr. Herbert Zipper who led the orchestra to perform major symphonic works, ballets and opera productions. In 2001, it was resurrected by its long time concertmaster, Basilio Manalo, by elevating into professional status the Manila Youth Symphony Orchestra, mostly composed of members trained under PREDIS.
The PREDIS Chamber Orchestra will perform Mozart’s Divertimiento in D Major, K 136; Antonio Vivaldi’s Concerto Grosso in A Minor; Johann Sebastian Bach’s Concerto for Two Violins in D Minor; Edvard Grieg’s Suite from Holberg’s Time; and Bela Bartok’s Rumanian Dances. The MSO will play Angel Peña’s Philippine Festival Overture; Tchaikovsky’s Tempest; and Igor Stravinsky’s Firebird Suite.
On Sept. 23, the UST Symphony Orchestra and FILharmoniKa will perform.
Composed of 70 UST music students, the UST Symphony Orchestra is a resident performing group of the CCP. It was founded in 1927 by its conductor Dr. Manuel Casas of the UST Faculty of Medicine and Surgery. After four public performances from 1929 to 1931, the group apparently disbanded and was reorganized in 1961 by National Artist for music Antonino Buenaventura. For the festival, the orchestra will play the Rienzi Overture by Richard Wagner; Piano Concerto No. 6 in B Flat Major K 238 by Mozart with Najib Ismail on the piano; and Finlandia by Jean Sibelius.
FILharmoniKA was formed in 2005 as the in-house recording ensemble of Carmel House Studios, a music and audio post-production facility in Manila, then known as the Global Studio Orchestra. In 2008, it took a new direction and a new name, FILharmoniKA. For the festival, it will perform “Terry’s Theme” from Limelight by Charlie Chaplin, arranged by Gerard Salonga; Night on a Bald Mountain by Modest Mussorgsky; Yerma by Francisco Feliciano: and “Symphonic Dances” from West Side Story by Leonard Bernstein.
The UP Orchestra and the Angono Chamber Orchestra will perform on Sept. 24.
The UP Orchestra has a sporadic existence. In 2003, it was revitalized by merging two existing orchestra classes, and now mainly serves as the laboratory class for the instrument majors of both the Strings and Chamber Music Department and the Winds and Percussion Department enrolled in orchestra class as well as one of the performing groups of the university.
Under the management of the Angono Philharmonic Society, the Angono Chamber Orchestra was founded conductor/composer Diestro, gathering talented children with ages ranging from 12 to 22 years old who come mostly from Angono and other towns in Rizal. Its main purpose is to bring classical music to the people of Angono and its neighboring towns. All members are taking lessons from noted Filipino instrumentalists under the U P Extension Program.
The UP Orchestra will perform Overture to the Impressario by Mozart; Serenade for Strings by Tchaikovsky; and “Mindanao Sketches” by Antonino Buenaventura. The Angono Chamber Orchestra will perform Francisco Buencamino’s Pizzicato Caprice; Vivaldi’s Violin Concerto in A Minor, KV356, Op. 3, No. 6, with violinist Mikhail Ivan Ramos; and Lucio San Pedro’s “Katutubong Awitin” and “Jubilate,” arranged by Diestro.
The Festival Orchestra will close the festival on Sept. 25 with the performance of Leonard Bernstein’s “Three Dance Episodes” from On the Town; Richard Wagner’s “Elsa’s Procession to the Cathedral” from Lohengrin; Johannes Brahms’ Academic Festival Overture; Tchaikovsky’s “Romeo and Juliet Overture”; Ralph Vaughan William’s Fantasia on a Theme by Thomas Tallis; and selected movements from Gayane Ballet Suite by Aram Khachaturian.

Concerts will be held at the CCP Tanghalang Nicanor Abelardo (Main Theater) at 8 p.m. For the opening and closing concerts of the festival, tickets are priced at P1,000 for orchestra center, P800 for orchestra sides, P600 for Balcony I and P200 for Balcony II. Tickets for the daily concerts are priced at P700 for orchestra center, P500 for orchestra sides, P300 for Balcony I and 200 for Balcony II. Festival passes, which provide access to all concerts, are priced at P3,400 for orchestra center, P2,600 for orchestra sides and P1,800 for Balcony I. Discounts are available for seniors at 20 percent and students at 50 percent off. For more information, call the CCP Box Office at telephone number 832-1125 local 1409 and direct line 832-3704.

Monday, September 13, 2010

Budding Then, Ubod Now: A Crop of New Authors

The ultimate dream and realization of being a writer is the publication of his/her own book—a legacy to pass on from one generation to another, a vessel of one’s thoughts and emotions, an achievement of patiently tended maturity and creativity, an instrument to touch other lives, a document of the world as well as an instrument for its change, a contribution to the cultural wealth of the country. A book is all these and much more, even for a mere reader.

As a child, the great American fictionist Eudora Welty thought that a book is a thing of wonder, sprouting magically like trees. But books are written by men, her painful realization later.

There is a process to that fruition, entailing growth, patience, evergreen faith, perseverance and passion. One nurtures the dream with books, smelling their leaves aromatic with age or newness but defiant of time, marveling how words blossom into images and stir emotions, and desiring to capture and create. One attempts at composing maudlin poems and self-conscious essays. One studies the rudiments of writing, learning the necessities slowly and often painfully like life itself—finding a voice of his/her own, fermenting thoughts, wielding well the implements and devices, etc. One finds his/her way to workshops and the need for kinship of spirit. One comes out in periodicals and proves oneself worthy. Sometimes, one wins awards. Although important, they are not requisite. Then one publishes a book.

But sometimes, even though one completes the process and/or is good enough to publish a book, one is not able to. There may be economic interventions. In a developing country like the Philippines, publishing is not a lucrative endeavor. There is a dearth readership to spur publishing. And if there are publishers, creative works may not be given importance. It is harder for those writing in languages not widely used. Furthermore, still aspiring authors are seldom given a chance. Publishers bank on the proven and the popular usually. The manuscript lies inside the drawer or is stashed at the innermost cranny of the heart, waiting for the light of day and eternity. It can be a loss—both for the writer and also for the reader.

Although a product of passion, patience and pain, a book is also a product of opportunity. Even though the process of making a book seems disappointingly mundane, the aspiring writer will eventually find it magical, something akin to giving birth, the common allusion—bloody but miraculous. It is something the fourteen writers felt when their first books were launched under the Ubod New Authors Series, a project that gives selected writers who have not published a book yet the chance to have their first books published.

“It’s like giving birth to your first child,” Francisco Arias Monteseña, 44-year-old finance officer from Majayjay, Laguna, echoed the proverbial sentiment.

“It’s a dream come true!” exclaimed Leonilo Dalit Lopido, a 32-year-old employee of the Philippine Information Agency Region 8 from Eastern Samar. “I thought this is impossible.”

He further said: “About two years ago, a friend of mine (Voltaire Oyzon) once wrote a note for me on his first poetry book, An Maupay ha mga Waray ug iba pa nga mga Siday, which said ‘Huhulton ko an im libro’ (I’ll wait for your book). I just laughed at it. Now, I realized that having my first book published is gonna be fulfilling especially that I love siday (Waray poems).”

Mar Anthony Simon dela Cruz, a 28-year-old college instructor at the University of the Philippines in Los Banos who hails from Santiago City, Isabela, related: “Siyempre, talon ako nang talon sa tuwa….Akalain mo, may mga naka-appreciate sa mga kuwento ko. (Of course, I was jumping for joy….Who would have imagined someone appreciated my stories?)”

Likewise, 29-year-old Phil Harold L. Mercurio, also a college instructor from Calbayog City, was exultant: “Just like any writer who has just had a book debut, it feels like heaven. I am now convinced that I am indeed a writer and that my voice in the world of poetry does exist.”

Noel P. Tuazon, a 38-year-old college instructor from Bingag, Dauis, Bohol, tried to be wry: “Hindi ko alam; hindi ako sanay sa kaligahayan. (I don’t know; I am not used to happiness)”

Although 32-year-old freelance writer and editor Sherma Benosa, who hails from Bambang, Nueva Vizcaya, thought that having a book published is a realization of a dream, she felt overwhelmed (or underwhelmed) by how soon it was achieved. She explained: “I can’t help thinking that it’s a bit too soon for me to publish a book. I had initially given myself five years to write materials from which I’d choose several to include in a possible anthology. I had envisioned myself knocking on university presses’ doors for some editors to please take a look at my works. I had expected to be turned down a few times before someone would say, ‘Okay, let me see what you have.’ But just two years into the timeline and already there was Ubod. I thought I’d lose nothing if I submitted my work so I did. Little did I expect them to be chosen. I think I was just lucky.”

Benosa thinks that she has to go through the process more, holding that romantic image of the suffering writer, and experiencing more hardships to bear sweeter fruits.

On the other hand, the much younger (at 23 years old) Christoffer Mitch C. Cerda, a part-time lecturer at the Ateneo de Manila University and a son of San Pablo City, Laguna, was a tad impatient for the outing of his book. He said more than anything else he felt relieved “kasi sa pagkatalagal-tagal na nagsusulat ako, ngayon ko lang talaga naramdaman na may pinatutunguhan ang ginagawa ko. Sa ganito, may kongkreto akong maipapakita sa ibang tao. Gayundin, relieved kasi, tulad ng sinabi sa akin minsan ni Egay Samar tungkol sa pagkaranasan ng makalathala ng libro, parang na-exorcise na ako. Puwede na akong mag-move on. Kasi ang ‘ako’ na nagsulat ng mga kuwentong ito ay hindi na ang ‘ako’ ngayon. Ngayong libro na ang bahaging ito ng buhay ko, puwede na akong magtungo sa ibang bagay. (because for the long time I am writing, it is only now that I felt my writing is going somewhere. With this, I have something concrete to show to other people. Relieved because, like what Egay Samar said to me once about the experience of having a book published, I felt like I was exorcised. I can move one. Because the ‘I’ who wrote these stories is not the ‘I’ I am now. Now that this part of my life is a book, I can move on to other things.)”

But generally, the feeling was of euphoria, but this is later laden with consciousness of responsibility and maybe of pressure. Writing is a kind of power. Being published is a realization of that power.

“Having been published actually ushers in more challenges to refine my craft as a poet and broaden my themes further,” said Mercurio.

“I am overwhelmed but challenged to continuously hone the craft of writing,” agreed 24-year-old Jerome Mendoza Hipolito, a teacher of Central Bicol State University of Agriculture from Calabanga, Camarines Sur.

Monteseña, Lopido, Dela Cruz, Mercurio, Tuazon, Cerda, Hipolito and Benosa join Marlon Hacla, Jay Gallera Malaga, J.V.D. Perez, Adrian V. Remodo, Janis Claire B. Salvacion and Aida Campos Tiama in the celebration of the printed word made possible by the Ubod project.

The Ubod New Author series was started in 2002 by the National Committee on Literary Arts (NCLA), headed by poet and professor Ricardo De Ungria, of the National Commission for Culture and the Arts (NCCA), the Philippine government arm that administers to the country’s arts and culture and give grants to its projects. Aiming to find emerging talents and encourage them by publishing their first books, a chapbook of about fifty pages (about twenty to forty poems or five to ten short stories, etc.), Ubod took three years to select and publish its first roster of new authors from all over the country, writing in different genres and in English and different Philippine languages. Ubod is the Tagalog and Cebuano word for “heart of palm or bamboo,” meaning that the selected writers are thought to be the best of the crop. Having a book published is such a sacred honor meant for the deserving.

Out of 140 entries, the editorial board of distinguished writers led by poet and literary scholar Gemino Abad chose forty writers: Sid Hildawa, Naya Valdellon, Gabriela Lee, Raul Moldez, Rosendo Makabali and Ralph Semino Galan for poetry in English; Joseph Salazar, Edgar Calabia Samar, Richard Gappi, Joselito de los Reyes, Joselyn Floresca, Enrico Torralba, Marieta Culibao and Jema Pamintuan for poetry in Filipino; Santiago Villafania for poetry in Pangasinan; Estellito Baylon Jacob for poetry in Bikol; Anna Felicia Sanchez, Peter Mayshle, Ian Casocot, Mildred Malaki and Arifa Jamil for fiction in English; Alwyn Aguirre, Vlademeir Gonzales, Alvin Yapan, Maricris Calilung and Ernesto Carandang, Jr. for fiction in Filipino; Julio Belmes for fiction in Iluko; Januar Enero Yap for fiction in Cebuano; Genvieve Asenjo for fiction in Kinaray-a; John Barrios for fiction in Aklanon; Georgina Verdolaga and Maryanne Moll for creative nonfiction in English; Debbie Ann Tan, Christopher Gozum, and Liza Magtoto for drama in English; and Bay-viz Canleon, Edward Perez, Dennis Marasigan and Chris Martinez for drama in Filipino.

With about 800 copies published for each title, the books were launched on December 6, 2005, at the Cultural Center of the Philippines. Heartened by the bountiful harvest, the NCLA launched a second edition in 2009, partnering with the Ateneo Institute of Literary Arts and Practices (AILAP), headed by children’s writer and literary critic Christine Bellen, of the Ateneo de Manila University.

The second Ubod garnered about 25 entries from which 14 were selected by a prestigious pool of readers, editors, translators and writers including Cles Rambaud, Eli Rueda Guieb III, Michael M. Coroza, Kristian S. Cordero, Timothy R. Montes, John Iremil Teodoro and Merlie M. Alunan, each of them specializing in a language. Literary critic Soledad Reyes served as the general editor of the collection.

Launched on August 12, 2010, at the Ateneo were Benosa’s short stories in Iluko, Dagiti Babassit nga Alipugpog (Little Whirlwinds), edited and with selected translation by Rambaud; Cerda’s short stories in Tagalog, Paglalayag Habang Naggagala ang Hilaga at Iba Pang Kuwento (Venturing While the North is Wandering and Other Stories), edited and with selected translation by Guieb; Dela Cruz’s short stories in Tagalog, Pasakalye (Introduction), edited and with selected translation by Guieb; Hacla’s poetry in Tagalog, May Mga Dumadaang Anghel sa Parang (There are Angels Passing Through the Meadow), edited and with selected translation by Coroza; Hipolito’s poetry in Bikol, Oda sa Tadik asin iba pang Bersong Bikol, edited and with selected translation by Cordero; Lopido’s poetry in Waray, Ha Salog ug iba pa nga mga Siday (In the River and Other Poems), edited and with selected translation by Alunan; Malaga’s poetry in Hiligaynon, Duha Ka Tingog (Two Voices), edited and with selected translation by Genevieve Asenjo; Mercurio’s poetry in Waray, Ayaw Pagpudla an Tuog Ug Iba pa nga mga Siday (Don’t Cut the Tuog and Other Poems), edited by Montes and with selected translation by Alunan, Salvacion and Mercurio; Monteseña’s poetry in Tagalog, Pagluluno at Iba Pang Tula (Shedding of Feathers and Other Poems), edited and with selected translation by Edgar Samar; Perez’s short stories in Hiligaynon, Ang Mga Anak Sang Montogawe (The Children of Montogawe and Other Stories), edited and with selected translation to Filipino by Teodoro; Remodo’s poetry in Bikol, Ini an Sakuyang Hawak Asin Iba Pang Bersong Bikol (This is My Body and Other Verses in Bikol), edited and with selected translation by Cordero; Salvacion’s poetry in Waray, Siso Sakradang Ug Iba pa nga mga Siday Han Tagoangkan (Seesaw Up and Down and Other Poems From the Womb), edited and with selected translation by Alunan; Tiama’s poetry in Iluko, Pinagbiahe (Journey), edited and with selected translation by Rambaud; and Tuazon’s poetry in Cebuano, Tanang Namilit sa Hangin (Everything Wind-borne), edited and with selected translation by Alunan.

The new authors, whose ages range from 23 to 44, come from a variety of professions, as it is not possible in the country to make a living on creative writing alone. Most are teachers as with most of the writers in the country are. Teaching most likely is the profession that is most compatible with writing.

It is noticeable that ten of new set of Ubod books are poetry, considered the most “refined” of the literary arts but the most “unprofitable.” While publication of poetry in popular avenues like magazines and even in book form declines, Ubod provides an opportunity for it. But the most notable aspect of the Ubod project is that it allows publication in the different vernacular languages of the country, which have no or limited venue. Ubod has the potential to renew or energize writing in the vernaculars.

Sa labing-apat na kalipunan, apat lamang ang naisulat sa Filipino; walo sa iba’t ibang bernakular. At ilan sa mga akdang ito ay isinalin sa Filipino at sa Ingles upang mabasa ng higit na malaking publiko. Napakaluwang na pintuan ang binuksan ng seryeng Ubod sa paglutang ng panitikan mula sa iba’t ibang rehiyon. Patunay lamang ito na sa sistemang waring pinaghaharian ng panitikang Tagalog, buong lakas na maigigiit at maisusulong ang iba pang uri ng teksto sa ibang mga wika. Kailangan ito tungo sa sistematiko at masinsinang paghabi ng panitikan ng Pilipinas—pagpupuno sa guwang at espasyo ng ating kasaysayan (In the collection of 14, only four are written in Filipino; eight in the different vernaculars. Several of these works were translated into Filipino and English in able to be read by a wider audience. The Ubod series opened a big door for the surfacing of literature from the different regions. This is proof that in the system in which Tagalog literature seems to reign other kinds of texts in different languages can emerge and progress with might. This is needed towards a systematic and earnest weaving of Philippine literature—filling in the gaps and spaces of our history),” wrote Reyes in her foreword to the Ubod collection.

To many new authors, the ability to write and get published in the vernacular languages is Ubod’s attraction as well as its most powerful aspect, which gives an added specialness to the already special feeling of having a first book published.

“The Ubod project gives writers a shot at having their works published in book form,” Benosa, a linguistic graduate and a member of Gumil, an organization of writers in Iluko, explained. “It is especially helpful for writers in the vernaculars whose chances of having their books published is much slimmer compared to their Tagalog and English counterparts as university presses, especially those in Manila, favor works written in languages for wider communication, that is, Tagalog and English. In order for vernacular works to be published, they generally need to be translated to either Tagalog or English first. Ubod not only publishes works in their original languages, it also allows some works in a collection to be translated.”

She added: “I hope the Ubod project will give the vernacular literatures the respect that they deserve.”

“I hope my book will inspire young Bikolano writers to publish their own. My book is one of the proofs that Bikol literature is continuously flourishing,” Hipolito said. “The chapbook is very special to me because this is my contribution to Bikol literature.”

“For me who came from an upstream barangay, a far-flung barangay in Dolores, Eastern Samar, this (his book) is really a big accomplishment considering that this is published through a national grant, which accepted our works to be published,” related Lopido. “The stories of (my) poems were based on experiences in the place where I grew up, including the culture, beliefs and the setting. This book is a manifestation that Waray literature is still alive. Thanks to the creative writing programs in Eastern Visayas, particularly the UP (University of the Philippines) Creative Writing Workshop and Lamiraw in Northwest Samar State University as well as the Iligan National Writers’ Workshop, which were part of the realization of this book.”

For Tuazon, his book is “my simple contribution to Binisaya-Sinugboanon literature. Sa wakas, may mailagay nang aklat na isinulat sa naturang lengguwahe sa estante ng aming library. (At last, there is now a book written in that language, which can be placed on the shelves of our library)”

He hopes that his work as well as other works in the series are read by the whole country so that they will know “na buhay na buhay at humihinga ang regional literature na inakalang lumisan na at ang Philippine literature ay pinaghaharian lamang ng mga nasa sentro. (regional literature is alive and kicking, which many thought dead and that Philippine literature is ruled by those in the center.)”

For Mercurio, who is responsible for putting up the writing workshop Lamiraw in his hometown, finds more self-fulfilment in promoting regional literature.

“I was able to write this collection out of the need to help revive Waray literature. It is not really meant just to showcase my literary works and creative techniques but more of telling the world out there that Waray literature is alive and kicking, that it is not dead. Perhaps, it just hibernated for awhile but now it has awakened from its deep slumber, and it is back on its track to reclaim its forgotten glory,” he declared. “I hope that my book will serve as an inspiration to young Waray writers to embrace tradition and, at the same time, absorb modern techniques in writing. I am optimistic that this publication will encourage writers in the regional languages to search for their unique voice in the world of creative writing. I am looking forward to having more Waray poems and short stories published in the coming years.”

While others who write in their own languages struggled to find a venue for their writings, Benosa struggled to find her way back to her mother tongue.

“I wasn’t really very good at writing in Ilocano. Though I have been reading Ilocano materials since I was a kid, I never wrote in the vernacular. And since it wasn’t used and taught in school, I did not know its grammar and orthography well enough to write in the language. So at first, it was very difficult for me to write in Ilocano,” she related. “The very first Ilocano short story I wrote (‘Pasuksok’) was originally in English. It took me weeks to translate it into Ilocano. It was in 2007 when I made the decision to write in my mother tongue that I forced myself to write directly in Ilocano. It was very difficult. I had lots of blanks, as well as Tagalog and English words scattered all over the drafts. Editing took a long time. I had to consult the dictionary many times and ask people about the Ilocano translation of lots of terms. But I persevered, writing nothing except Ilocano sentences. After three months of constant practice, in December 2007, I wrote my very first short story directly in Ilocano. To me, it was a great achievement.”

With Ubod, Benosa found new encouragement to pursue writing in Iluko and even in other languages: “I have several plans, but I am still deciding which to pursue first. I am thinking of trying my hand at Tagalog writing, or going back to writing in English. Or perhaps writing a novel in Ilocano. Definitely I’ll continue writing for children and eventually put up a publishing company.”

It is precious also the encouragement and the affirmation the Ubod project gives to emerging writers. Many in the first harvest have continued writing and are now known writers. In this second batch, one notices the fire, now stoked for grander things.

Dela Cruz, who dreams of becoming a National Artist for literature, said: “Naiinggit ako sa mga kaibigan, kaklase at kakilala na may publication na at nanalo na sa Palanca at sa iba pang literary competition. Eh, sabi ko, bakit ako wala pa ring achievement sa pagsusulat? Iba siyempre ‘yong mga napanalunan kong essay writing contest noong elementary at high school. Eh, ngayong bahagi na ako ng Ubod, may yabang factor talaga. Importante ito dahil kahit paano may nagsasabing may talent din pala ako sa pagsusulat. Siyempre, nakaka-boost ng self-esteem. Ngayon, mas lalo akong ginanahang magsulat. (I envied my friends, classmates and acquaintances who have been published and who have won in the Palanca and other literary competitions. I thought why I haven’t achieved anything in writing? The essay writing contests I won during elementary and high school, those are different. Now, I am part of Ubod. This is important because someone is saying that I also have a talent in writing. Of course, it boosts your self-esteem. Now, I am more inspired to write)”

For Mercurio, who dreams of writing a novel in Waray, his book “is important in the sense that it serves as a milestone of my writing career…It inspires me to write more poems or even branch out to other genres, like the short story. Moreover, it promises and signals the coming of other works written by young writers in the Waray language, especially by Lamiraw writers at the Northwest Samar State University (NwSSU) in Calbayog City.”

With renewed vigor, he is “looking forward to organizing more writers’ guilds in Samar in order to boost the revival of Waray literature. Well, Lamiraw is already an established writers’ organization in NwSSU. CALAO (Calbayog Literary Arts Organization) is already there in the city consisting of traditional and modern writers. Likewise, ALAG (Abaknon Literary Arts Guild) is already in place in Capul, Northern Samar. But we feel that we still need to encourage more writers in the region to write in their mother tongue. We, the contemporary Waray writers in Region 8 like Voltaire Oyzon, Neil Lopido, Janis Salvacion, Jhonil Bajado, Nemesio ‘Totoy’ Baldesco and Dante Rosales, are actually aiming to create a tsunami of publications written in our mother language.”

The Ubod project means many things and may start many things. Ubod and the first publication of a book are all these and much more—blossoming, fruiting, ramification, defiance of death of any kind. A book is man’s bid to immortality.

“Life is short and art is long. Isang simpleng paraan kung paano maging imortal tulad ng hangin (a simple way to being immortal like the wind),” Tuazon said of having a book.